This discovery has fuelled a new era of research into understanding the tremendous potential that these cells hold for treatment of CNS diseases and injuries. Here, we discuss pertinent preclinical investigations involving NSCs, including how NSCs can ameliorate these … However, it is believed that the type B cells (activated GFAP+/PAX6+ astrocytes or astroglial-like NSCs) are the cells that exhibit stem cell properties, and these cells may be derived directly from radial glial cells, the predominant neural precursor population in the early developing brain. Radial glia also give rise to the ependymal cells lining the ventricles of the adult CNS, to more oligodendrocyte progenitors, and to neural stem cells that remain active throughout adult life (afterKriegstein & Alvarez-Buylla, 2009). Cell Death Differ 13: 5-11, 2006, Singh SK, et al. The embryonic stem cells that are present in the inner cell mass of the blastocyst are an example of pluripotent stem cells. When these embryonic stem cells (ESCs) are grown in culture under certain conditions, they can produce neural precursors. Figure 1. However, neurogenesis is known to decline during aging and, to the extent that neurogenesis is required for normal CNS function, this may contribute to neurodegenerative disease. The theoretical foundation of NSC biology rests basically on the three defining properties that a single NSC must fulfill: self-renewal, multipotency, and clonality. Kiyohiko Angata, Minoru Fukuda, in Methods in Enzymology, 2010. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 87: 6368-6372, 1990, Ray J, Gage FH. Neurobiologists routinely use various terms interchangeably to describe undifferentiated cells of the CNS. Specification of glial lineages. NSCs are present in embryonic development and in the adult brain. However, their effects in vivo are not identical to those in vitro, and, consequently, their physiological relevance for normal neural precursor cell function of the adult brain is not known. Neural Stem Cells Industry Market. Stephanie Willerth, Stem cells and their applications in repairing the damaged nervous system, Engineering Neural Tissue from Stem Cells, 10.1016/B978 … Geographically, the Neural Stem Cells market size spans across North America, Europe, Asia-Pacific, South America and Middle East and Africa. Type-1 (CB1) Cannabinoid Receptor Promotes Neuronal Differentiation and Maturation of Neural Stem Cells plos.org. In the cortex, neuroepithelial cells transition into radial glial cells, which then give rise to neural progenitors, neurons, astrocytes and oligodendrocytes. NSCs in the SVZ are endowed with the defining stem cell properties of self-renewal and multipotent differentiation, which are maintained by intrinsic cellular programs, and extrinsic cellular and niche-specific interactions. Nature 448: 313-317, 2007, Wernig M, et al. Stem cells produced in this way are called induced Pluripotent Stem Cells (iPSCs) and can be taken from the skin or blood of patients. Introduction. Cereb Cortex 16 Suppl 1: i112-i120, 2006, Pollard SM, et al. 6-4 N generates neurons. NSCs are seen as highly promising agents of cellular therapy as they are natural precursors of the cells they are intended to repair or replace. As a result, toward the end of neurogenesis, the neuroepithelial cells that are left become elongated cells, called radial glia (Fig. Background Neural induction of human pluripotent stem cells often yields heterogeneous cell populations that can hamper quantitative and comparative analyses. Early expressed transcriptional regulators akin to Olig have not yet been identified for astrocytes. Stem Cells 23: 781-790, 2005, Liem KF Jr, et al. Similar to stem cells in other systems, the phenotype of CNS stem cells has not been completely determined. Neural stem cells are a promising source for cell therapy in spinal cord injury. Regional differences in vivo reinforce the importance of the microenvironment for normal precursor cell function and neurogenesis. 14.5D3). Alternatively, cells obtained from CNS tissues can be cultured as adherent cultures in a defined, serum-free medium supplemented with EGF and/or bFGF, in the presence of a substrate such as poly-L-ornithine, laminin, or fibronectin. Jessell and colleagues (Wichterle et al., 2002) combined inducers that first turn mouse ESCs into neural progenitors with factors such as retinoic acid that drives posterior regional identity such as spinal cord and Shh that drives ventral fates in the spinal cord to push these ESCs to differentiate into neural then spinal and finally into motor neurons that express the same combinatorial codes of transcription factors as motor neurons in vivo. Macklis, in Encyclopedia of Stress (Second Edition), 2007. Neural stem cells develop from the neural crest, which is derived from the ectoderm. The term neural precursor cells is commonly used to collectively describe the mixed population of NSCs and neural progenitor cells derived from embryonic stem cells and induced pluripotent stem cells. J Neurochem 88: 212-226, 2004, Corti S, et al. 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