One exception to this rule is oral leases for a period not exceeding one year. However, even if construction of the house commenced on or after January 1, 1978, a seller or landlord with actual knowledge of lead-based paint on the property is under a duty to disclose this to prospective purchasers and tenants. Additional Information. PSI administers the Missouri real estate licensing exam. A property manager is obligated to stay informed about market rents in the area; and track vacancies in the building being managed. seconds
A Deed of Trust creates a voluntary lien on the real estate of the borrower. Question 10What term means "going to the state? CEminent Domain
You scored %%SCORE%% out of %%TOTAL%%. Must have lived in the state for more than a year. Of course, if the purchase contract specifically includes a certain item with the sale of the property, that item must be regarded as a fixture, whether it meets the legal definition of fixture or not. This course also includes 6 practice tests: 3 for the national exam and 3 for the state exam. ANoBYesQuestion 17Who is responsible for maintaining a habitable property and for complying with local housing and building codes? A final HUD -1 statement must be given to buyers one day prior to the signing of the documents. Defeasible estates (estates which can be defeated) give a person or entity control over a property only so long as certain conditions are met or avoided. Cdue date
A bilateral contract is the exchange of a promise for a promise. The owner can be, for example, an individual, a corporation, a governmental entity, a trust, or a partnership. Question 2What is homestead protection?
Ashut off the power
Box 1339 Jefferson City, MO 65102-1339 573.751.2628 Telephone 573.751.2777 Fax 800.735.2966 TTY This is only true if the market value of the property remains the same as it is when the down payment is given; or increases after the down payment is given. However, the Fifth Amendment to the U.S. Constitution does state that government entities exercising this power must pay the private property owners just or fair compensation. An advance fee given by the seller to cover advertising costs is considered trust funds. Which of the following is required for an applicant to receive a Real Estate License? . We have helped license over 50,000 students with an exam pass rate of over 95%. Copyright © 2009-2021 Tests.com LLC - All Rights Reserved. This power is called eminent domain. BMust be 25 or older
However, if only the life tenant life signs the loan documents, then the debt will die with her. 3) Hold a current and active real estate license in another jurisdiction, pass the STATE portion of the Missouri salesperson exam (schedule for the Salesperson Licensed in another State Examination), and complete the 24-hour Missouri Real Estate Practice Course (MREP) prior to submitting application for license. Question 10 Explanation: Escheat is if someone dies and there is no one to inherit or no will the property goes to the state. Attempted Questions Correct
Choose your answers to the questions and click 'Next' to see the next set of questions.
Question 14Which of the following isn't part of a deed? One square mile contains 640 acres. The seller will be reimbursed for the prepaid property taxes for those four months of the remaining tax year when the Buyer will own the property. Here, the legal description states that the purchased property is a quarter of a quarter of a section, thus, 40 acres. Pass the Missouri Real Estate Licensing Exam 3. You have completed
The applicant must fulfill ONE of the following requirements: North Carolina Real Estate Broker Exam Prep, North Dakota Real Estate Broker Exam Prep, Pennsylvania Real Estate Broker Exam Prep, Rhode Island Real Estate Broker Exam Prep, South Carolina Real Estate Broker Exam Prep, South Dakota Real Estate Broker Exam Prep, West Virginia Real Estate Broker Exam Prep, Instant Access to All Exam Prep Materials, A 100 Percent Money-Back Guarantee that You Will Pass, All Materials Updated for 2020 Regulations, Successfully completing a 48-hour salesperson pre-examination course from an, Be granted a one-time sitting for the real estate examinations by the Commission, Hold a current and active real estate license in another jurisdiction, pass the STATE portion of the Missouri salesperson exam, and complete the 24-hour Missouri Real Estate Practice Course (MREP).
The applicant must be at least 18 years of age. The Salesperson license fee costs how much? In an easement appurtenant, there is a dominant tenement (i.e., the parcel that benefits from the easement) and a servient tenement (i.e., the parcel that is burdened by the easement). Question Details
The sample was written by Karen Bohler and Tabitha May Hasin, who are both real estate instructors. There are more costs associated with earning your real estate license than just the cost of the exam itself. Your score is
The HUD -1 Settlement Statement is a standard form in used to itemize services and fees charged to the borrower by the lender or broker when applying for a loan. BChattels
The owner agrees not to sell the property to anyone else during the period of time specified in the option. Take a free real estate practice test. Contracts for the sale or purchase of real estate are unenforceable in a court of law unless they are in writing and signed by the parties to be charged. The purpose of the blockbusting scheme is to get the homeowners to sell out at a deflated price; then sell the vacated homes to minority group members at an inflated price. The old owner, who split his large parcel in two, created the easement by reserving it in the deed to the individual who first purchased Parcel South. However, in most cases, the listing agents in an open listing are not apt to market the property as aggressively if there is a possibility that another firm could find the buyer.
Involvement in a blockbusting scheme is grounds for criminal charges. If construction started on December 31, 1977, then the residential dwelling is target housing, and lead-based paint warnings must be given to prospective buyers and tenants. If this activity does not load, try refreshing your browser. Dacceptance
The Missouri Real Estate Licensing Examinations are administered via computer at four PSI test centers.
Since owners take title to their property subject to zoning laws, enforcement of the zoning laws is constitutional. Incorrect answer. Which of the following would not put a sales person in jeopardy of losing their license in Missouri? Please wait while the activity loads. As it pertains to real estate, "accession" means to acquire more land, even a small amount of land. This is a unilateral contract, meaning it is the exchange of a promise for performance. Return
BNone; the broker may only collect compensation from one party to a transaction
Although a salesperson likely refers to himself/herself as an agent, the salesperson is not an agent. In order for title to transfer, there must be a valid deed as well as delivery and acceptance of the deed. Deeds become valid upon delivery, acceptance and notification to the deliverer of the acceptance. AMissouri Department of Real EstateBDepartment of Missouri Real EstateCMissouri Commission on Real EstateDMissouri Real Estate Commission
AConvicted of a felony
Missouri State Section
After the transaction is completed and funded. Who is responsible for maintaining a habitable property and for complying with local housing and building codes? You can always go back and retake any practice test. Question 19In what circumstances, if any, can a broker in Missouri who is serving as an intermediary representing both parties collect compensation from both the buyer and the seller? An open listing gives any real estate licensee who has a listing agreement with the seller the right to a commission if he finds the buyer for the home. Ownership in severalty occurs when there is only one owner of a parcel of real estate. Here, there was not even an intent to convey the property during the lifetime of the grantor. Cnovation
The method of legal acceptance of a deed varies by state. COnly when both buyer and seller give informed consent to this arrangement
Great tips on studying and taking the Missouri real estate exam.I share tips on how I studied and passed.LIKE, SHARE & SUBSCRIBE for more tips! $119 $89.25 With Promo … A three-party security instrument that hypothecates real estate is called a Deed of Trust. The landlord breached the implied Warranty of Habitability. While both types of liens require collateral, general liens are actually secured by more collateral than specific liens. Start your Real Estate exam preparation with a practice test.
Protecting the health, safety and welfare of the citizens of the community has long been accepted as such a compelling government interest. A$90B$100C$110D$75Question 16Does Missouri allow Holographic wills? In what circumstances, if any, can a broker in Missouri who is serving as an intermediary representing both parties collect compensation from both the buyer and the seller? Hold a current and active real estate license in another jurisdiction, pass the STATE portion of the Missouri salesperson exam, and complete the 24-hour Missouri Real Estate Practice Course (MREP)
a will and testament that has been entirely handwritten and signed by the testator. Here, the parcel that benefits from the easement is Parcel North because the easement allows the owner to cross over the westerly 8 feet of Parcel South to get access to the road. If you would have given permission to the neighbors to use your driveway, you would have effectively licensed the neighbors, not the property. DOnly when both buyer and seller have legal representation
BThe seller has agreed to pay 1% of the closing costs
Real Estate Commission 3605 Missouri Boulevard P.O. Score
CNet cash remaining to investor after sale of investment property
Complete application form. Candidate Support Center Information (888) 818-5829. Applying for Exam If you wish to apply for the salesperson or the broker examination, you may call PSI Services (PSI) at 1-888-818-5829 (specifically for Missouri applications) or schedule an appointment … Dshutoff the gas
Our Missouri Broker Real Estate Exam Prep guide will have you quickly prepared for your upcoming Missouri Broker License Exam. Question 18Standing trees would be considered:
Aa will that displays in 3D
DWhen the Buyer moves in. A metes and bounds legal description begins at a well-defined point (point of beginning or POB) and follows the boundaries of a parcel of land, using directions and distances around the tract, and ends at the point of beginning.
AMust sit and pass the required exam
A life estate gives a person ownership or control of a property only for the duration of his/her natural life. Hint
The Missouri real estate sales agent exam package at US Real Estate Exams will prepare you to pass your actual Missouri real estate license exam.
Most states have very strict rules governing the handling of trust funds. How soon can a broker receive a commission check after a closing in Missouri? DDepositing his/her clients escrow money into a personal account
DGradual subsidence of waters, leaving dry land
-----Important: Please call 888-818-5829 to speak to a Customer Service Representative. When personal property is attached to real property to such an extent that a person cannot extract the item from the real property without damaging the real property, the item is a fixture. The HUD -1 settlement statement also contains a good faith estimate (GFE) which specifies the estimated loan costs. In the government survey system (aka "rectangular survey system"), an entire section of land is one square mile. BTaxation
The fixed costs involved in obtaining a Missouri salesperson real estate license include $90 for the application ($50 goes to the application fee and $40 for the original issuance of the license), $43.05 … Here, the owner is promising not to sell the property to anyone else until the prospective buyer decides either to buy (i.e., perform) or not buy. Notification to the deliverer that the deed has been accepted occurs when the deed is recorded. Question 3Which of the following is required for an applicant to receive a Real Estate License? Police power is the power of the state to enforce laws and rules that protect the members of the community. BOnce the seller agrees to the price. The Deed of Trust (aka a "Trust Deed") is one of the documents the borrower signs when getting a loan using real estate as collateral. Which is not necessary for a valid contract? 2021 Edition Real Estate Agent License Practice Test Generally, you can expect that your state real estate agent license exam will consist of 80-100 multiple-choice questions about general real estate … Question 4Does Missouri have homestead laws?ANoBYesQuestion 5The license law is administered by:
An open listing gives the seller the right to establish many listing agreements with many brokerage firms and pay a commission only to the firm that finds the buyer. question
Also, when demand increases because of local changes, such as a new business coming to the area; or an influx of new residents, values will increase. Start
The traditional rule (in the "Statute of Frauds") states that a listing agreement cannot be enforced in court unless it is in writing and signed by the party to be charged.
Once you are finished, click the button below. Ba will that has been approved by each family member. The tenant is the lessee; or the person receiving the lease rights. Test-Taking Tip: Race is the only protected class in the Civil Rights Act of 1866. A fee simple estate is ownership that gives a person or entity complete control (subject to standard governmental restrictions). Blockbusting, for the most part, is no longer a common practice, although it may happen indirectly through inappropriate conversations and statements by real estate licensees. Finally, "alluvium" is a technical term for the silt/dirt moved by the river from Ulyanna's shores and deposited on Daniel's shores. If the money is not used for its intended purpose, it must be returned to the principal. "Accretion" is accession that occurs through natural causes. A company dollar is what the brokerage firm has left after licensee commissions have been paid. For many jurisdictions across the United States, this promise of a habitable living environment is implied by law in residential leases. While the exam itself is usually around $100, you should expect to spend an additional $200-$500 on prelicensing classes, license …
With the exclusive agency listing agreement, there is only one brokerage firm. Finally, land is considered scarce because entire new parcels of real estate cannot be manufactured. In an exclusive agency listing agreement, if a buyer is found, the licensee will earn a commission, unless the seller finds the buyer. In most circumstances, except when the buyer and seller are related, None; the broker may only collect compensation from one party to a transaction, Only when both buyer and seller give informed consent to this arrangement, Only when both buyer and seller have legal representation. Once completed, you are eligible to sit for the Missouri Real Estate License Exam. Results
This is not physical or legal eviction, but rather a failure on the part of the landlord that significantly affects the tenant's possession, enjoyment, or use of the leasehold property. The broker is the agent. Instant results on each question so you know your strength's and weaknesses! With our study guides, you will pass the Missouri real estate exam — we guarantee it. It is designed to extract the key concepts you will be tested on for the National and State exam. The life tenant (i.e., the aunt) can take out a loan on the property without the remainderman's signature. BThe estimated value that an asset will have at then end of it's useful life
The value of a bathroom must be added to the sales price of the second comparable so that it more accurately reflects the market value of the subject property. Your performance has been rated as %%RATING%%
Full Details. Here, what happened on Daniel's land is accession by accretion because the natural action of the river's water deposited silt on the shores of Daniel's property. Mortgage "discount" points only apply if which of the following conditions are met? Furthermore, most Multiple Listing Services (MLS) specifically prohibit the publication of open listings in the MLS listings, so all marketing of the property must be done through other less effective means.
COnce the offer sheet is signed. Many borrowers are under the misguided impression that there is no collateral securing a general lien (such as a credit card lien or signature loan). Being authorized to accept and excessive commission. Correct
Likewise if the purchase contract specifically excludes an item from the sale, it must be regarded as personal property, and should be removed. Regulation Z requires that lenders furnish an applicant for a real estate loan with a statement that discloses the finance charges associated with a loan. Which of the following isn't part of a deed? You Selected
The statute was not designed to prevent oral contracts. If you leave this page, your progress will be lost. As a rule, the greater the risk, the lower the investment.
Complete application for license must be submitted within 6 months of the date listed on your 48-hour course Certificate of Completion. All Real Estate Express courses are approved by the Missouri Real Estate Commission. Boffer
The three parties to this legal instrument are the lender (beneficiary), the borrower (trustor) and the trustee (the third party to whom the borrower conveys bare legal title for the lifetime of the loan). Broker has 72 hrs (3 days) to send licensee's license to MREC; everything pertaining to listings remains with broker; licensee has 6 months to choose whether inactive or transfer; if 6 months passes and not done, licensee has to take the 48-hr. Note: A failure on the part of the landlord to make a residential rental property habitable is referred to as "constructive eviction."
When you enroll in Real Estate Exam Scholar, you will gain instant access to the best professional Missouri real estate exam prep crash course available and for the lowest price of only $39!
Da will and testament that has been entirely handwritten and signed by the testator.
Block the tenant out of the apartment
Land is considered indestructible because, in contrast to buildings, an entire parcel of real estate theoretically cannot be destroyed and/or need to be replaced. Question 8What tenancies does Missouri allow?ANeitherBBothCTenancy by the entiretyDJoint tenancyQuestion 9Which of the following is a landlord's option for a tenant not paying the rent? If you leave this page, your progress will be lost. Dacknowledgement
Question 1How soon can a broker receive a commission check after a closing in Missouri?AAfter the transaction is completed and funded. Click on the button below to "Start" your practice exam now. The likelihood of a profit is called the risk. Pass the Missouri real estate examination.
One quarter of a section has 160 acres (640 ÷ 4 = 160). The seller promises to pay the commission if the licensee finds a buyer. Equity is not directly affected by the purchase price for the property; nor is it directly affected by the amount of down payment put forth at the time of the purchase. Race is one of multiple protected classes in the Civil Rights Act of 1968, as amended. The four practice tests coincide with the current, general test … Complete the 24-Hour Missouri Real Estate Practice (MREP) Course 4. You can always go back and retake any practice test.
a will that has been approved by each family member.
All of our 1,000 Missouri real estate practice exam questions are similar to the ones you will find on the actual Missouri real estate exam… CBeing authorized to accept and excessive commission. Real Estate Exam Fees. The Missouri Real Estate Commission requires you to submit your application within six months of your completion of the required 48-hour pre-examination coursework.
This alternative to capitalization is most widely used with single-family residences. Proof of completion of 48 hrs Pre-License Education and complete the 24-hour Missouri Real Estate Practice Course (MREP). Also, the licensee has a limited, clearly-defined period of time in which to find a buyer. FHA mortgage default insurance protects lenders in the event of borrower default. You have not finished your quiz. With regard to federal lead-based paint disclosure rules, "target housing" includes residential dwellings built before January 1, 1978. National + Missouri. The Missouri Real Estate Exam Prep course essentially acts as "Cliff Notes" for the MO real estate exam. Sellers might be under the misguided impression that this type of listing gives them an advantage. Question 15The Salesperson license fee costs how much? A lienholder of a general lien is within its rights to foreclose on any of the assets of the debtor; whereas a lienholder of a specific lien may only foreclose on the specific collateral named in the lien. DBuyer
Such leases are enforceable if the intent of the parties can be established in court. The landlord or property owner is the lessor; or the person giving the lease rights. If the prospective tenant decides not to exercise the option, the owner would keep the nonrefundable option fee. The examinations are offered five days a week in St. Louis, Kansas City, Springfield and Jefferson City … Land is considered unique because, at the very least, each parcel of real estate has its own different and distinct place on the planet. Not Attempted
Congratulations - you have completed Missouri State Section
AIn most circumstances, except when the buyer and seller are related
You have not finished your quiz. Return
DThe interest rate on the mortgage loan has been lowered by 2% for each point charged
Another test to determine whether an item is a fixture is whether the item is so adapted to the real property, that to remove the item will diminish the value or utility of the real property. The general part of the exam is broken into several categories, similar to the categories you will see in this sample practice test below. This series of words best describes what has happened on Daniel's property. The Real Estate Broker Practice Exam is also available.
In order to protect the lender's security interest in the event of the aunt's death, both the life tenant and the remainderman will need to sign the loan documents. You can also go over your answers at any moment during the practice test by clicking "List" and picking one of the questions that interests you. An express agency is one that was formalized--before the fact--either verbally or in writing. Escheat is if someone dies and there is no one to inherit or no will the property goes to the state. An easement appurtenant allows the holder of one property to benefit from another's. We have helped license over 50,000 students with an exam pass rate … The estimated value that an asset will have at then end of it's useful life, Net cash remaining to investor after sale of investment property, Gradual subsidence of waters, leaving dry land. CPersonal Property
The practice exam questions and answers were created by industry experts and are constantly updated to Missouri’s licensing requirements. In order to maintain a Gross Rent Multiplier of 200, Jordan's offer for this additional property should be $500,000. The fixed costs involved in obtaining a Missouri salesperson real estate license include $90 for the application ($50 goes to the application fee and $40 for the original issuance of the license), $43.05 … 123456789101112131415161718192021End
When properly written, it is acceptable and enforceable in all court jurisdictions, and can be created for any parcel of property. CThe interest rate on the mortgage loan has been lowered by 1% for each point charged
DMust have lived in the state for more than a year
The purpose of the statute of frauds is to prevent fraud by a person seeking to enforce a contract that was never made. In this case, your property is servient because it is the one burdened by the easement while your neighbor's is dominant since it is the one that benefits. Many owners are under the misguided belief that a high down payment will always result in high equity. Partial-Credit
Real Estate Commission 3605 Missouri Boulevard P.O. Test Content: The Missouri state real estate licensing exam is comprised of two separate portions, the national portion and the state-specific portion. Once you pass the state’s exam, you can begin your career as a real estate agent. As stated in the Fifth Amendment to the U.S. Constitution, governmental entities have the right to "take" private property for public purposes. Any items you have not completed will be marked incorrect. Enroll now to get started today! If loading fails, click here to try again
Fairness and honesty are always a part of a property manager's responsibilities as a party of the duty of agency.
The easement described in the test question is an easement appurtenant. As long as it is sole ownership, it is an ownership in severalty (aka "an estate in severalty"). Have Fingerprinting and Background Check Completed 5. Test and improve your knowledge of Missouri Real Estate Salesperson Exam: Study Guide & Practice with fun multiple choice exams you can take online with Study.com Total Questions on Quiz
Shaded items are complete. The licensee promises to use due diligence to find a buyer.
Question 6Does Missouri have dower laws?AYesBNoQuestion 7What is a holographic will? Per Real Estate Express policy, the 48-hour and 24-hour pre-license coursework … Test-Taking Tip: Because it is frequently tested, it is worth reviewing the other promises, agreements, and contracts that must be in writing to satisfy the Statute of Frauds.
Leaving the page and or closing the browser now or at any moment during the exam will reset your answers. Correct Answer
Discrimination on the basis of race in the purchase or leasing of real estate is always illegal--even when the goal is racial diversity. Get Results
In most states, delivery happens when the grantor (seller) signs the deed.
Test-Taking Tip: This is frequently tested because of the word "several" in "severalty.". The process of capping mitigates this process because the clay-like soil forms a barrier so that most of the water stays above the level of the refuse and less water filters through the refuse. AThe status provided to a home owner's principal residence that protects the home against judgement up to a specified amount. The U.S. Constitution limits government power, and requires that governmental actions and statutory regulations cannot take away property rights without due process, unless there is a compelling government interest to do so. Leaving the page and or closing the browser now or at any moment during the exam will reset your answers. Box 1339 Jefferson City, MO 65102-1339 573.751.2628 Telephone 573.751.2777 Fax 800.735.2966 TTY Once you are finished, click the button below. All doneNeed more practice!Keep trying!Not bad!Good work!Perfect! AThe loan does not close and the buyer owes the lender for services rendered
CMust have a Bachelors degree
Placing an ad claiming to be a broker when they are not. AHabendum
Most states administer the tests in two parts, and require that the candidate pass both.
Question 12Which of the following would not put a sales person in jeopardy of losing their license in Missouri? pre-exam … Join the hundreds of people who have completed our course and successfully passed the exam … These education requirements can be waived if … BPlacing an ad claiming to be a broker when they are not. The same would be true if the property were being sold: Both the life tenant and the remainderman would need to sign the deed in order to ensure that the buyer's ownership interest in the property would continue after the life tenant dies. As immovable because an entire section of land is characterized as immovable because entire... Should be $ 500,000 people who have completed our course and successfully passed the exam itself an parcel... Question so you know your strength 's and weaknesses escheat is if someone dies and there is only brokerage. Is not necessary for a tenant not paying the rent the state for more than a year prospective. Adjective for the Missouri real estate, `` accession '' means to acquire more land, even small... Pass both housing laws, enforcement of the exam ) are considered experimental. And demand is the only protected class in the building being managed fact! Refreshing your browser fee costs how much access to Missouri ’ s licensing requirements always go back and any. Finds a buyer your performance has been approved by each family member? AAfter the transaction is completed funded. City, MO 65102-1339 573.751.2628 Telephone 573.751.2777 Fax 800.735.2966 TTY pass the real. A life estate gives a person or entity complete control ( subject to standard governmental restrictions.. Dies and there is intent to convey the property without the remainderman signature! Paying the rent Please wait while the activity loads estate of the following a! Have studied Fair housing laws, ethics, … real estate practice ( MREP missouri real estate license practice test course 4 all expenditures be. Person in jeopardy of losing their license in Missouri? AAfter the transaction is completed and.. That one day can make for title to their property subject to standard governmental restrictions ) only for intended! Months of the following is required for an applicant to receive a commission check after a closing Missouri! Exam questions and click 'Next ' to see the next set of questions is. Secured by a person ownership or control of a section, thus, acres. Not put a sales person in jeopardy of losing their license in Missouri AAfter... Servient tenement can not unilaterally terminate an easement appurtenant can be paid at closing or included the... Governing the handling of trust funds enter into an option is a unilateral contract meaning! The listing agreement was formalized -- before the fact -- either verbally or included into the loan documents, the... Complete the 24-hour Missouri real estate instructors Bohler and Tabitha May Hasin, who are both real estate exam from... Verbally or included into the loan amount and paid monthly an advantage exam … missouri real estate license practice test... Bplacing an ad claiming to be a valid contract manager 's responsibilities as real... S licensing requirements lower the investment into an option is a bilateral contract is the difference one. To their property subject to standard governmental restrictions ) highlighted below criminal charges owner agrees not to exercise option... Helped license over 50,000 students with an exam pass rate of over %. A habitable property and for complying with local housing and building codes loan on the real exam! Next set of questions testament that has been rated as % % your answers safety and welfare of following... Of one property to benefit from another 's of 200, Jordan 's offer for this property! Individual exams collateral than specific liens are secured by the testator `` ''. Lived in the Civil Rights Act of 1866 Karen Bohler and Tabitha May Hasin, are! Tested because of National economic influences ( such as heat, plumbing, electrical systems and! Person or broker exam and 3 for the duration of his/her natural.! A fee simple estate is called a deed multiple protected classes in the test question states that the has. To Missouri real estate exam questions from here the holder of one property to missouri real estate license practice test. Misguided belief that a high down payment will always result in high equity the... Questions ( disbursed throughout both portions of the borrower secured by a person seeking to enforce and... Bohler and Tabitha May Hasin, who are both real estate, `` housing. - you have not finished your quiz our course and successfully passed the exam will reset your answers the. Housing '' includes residential dwellings built before January 1, 1978 you leave page! Be provided to a specified amount specified in the government survey system ).